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The Sounds of English

Below is a list of the common sounds of English and the letter groups used to represent these sounds. Letters and groups of letters may have different sounds, and this is shown along with their IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) and their frequency of occurrence.

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Spelling IPA Frequency Example
a
æ33.88%black 
ə28.99%abortion 
20.57%potato 
ɑ5.03%bathroom 
ɛ3.47%carrot 
a2.75%ladder 
ɪ1.92%bandage 
ɔ1.63%chalk 
ɒ1.23%watch 
ʌ0.54%wasn't 
ai
100.00%trai
al
100.00%social 
ar
ɑ62.22%har
ə32.96%librar
ɔ4.81%wardrobe 
au
ɔ97.92%sauce 
a2.08%laugh 
augh
ɔ77.78%daughter 
ɑf22.22%laughing 
aw
ɔ100.00%chainsaw 
b
b100.00%bird 
bb
b100.00%rabbit 
c
k77.19%calculator 
s22.81%fac
cc
k100.00%accountant 
ch
45.65%chocolate 
k21.30%school 
ʃ20.00%chef 
t͡ʃ13.04%cheese 
ci
ʃ80.00%musician 
ʃi20.00%species 
ck
k100.00%necklace 
d
d100.00%detergent 
dd
d100.00%addition 
don
dn̩100.00%abandon 
e
ɛ43.75%pencil 
ɪ22.88%jacke
ə18.90%pedestrian 
i8.37%ceiling 
e4.39%helicopter 
ɪə1.70%deer 
ea
i66.67%drea
ɛ28.46%pleasure 
ɪ2.44%ears 
ɪə2.44%idea 
ear
ɜ32.50%early 
ɛə10.00%bear 
ɪə̯7.50%ear 
eau
ju100.00%beautiful 
ed
d100.00%abandoned 
ee
i100.00%gree
eigh
100.00%eigh
er
ə39.34%paper 
əɹ31.97%spider 
ɜ16.72%detergent 
ɚ11.97%weather 
eu
ju100.00%neutral 
ew
ju100.00%newspaper 
ey
i100.00%chimney 
f
f100.00%frog 
ff
f100.00%coffee 
g
ɡ62.93%pig 
27.65%geography 
ʒ4.48%judg
d͡ʒ4.19%charg
g0.75%grandmother 
gg
ɡ100.00%egg 
gh
f100.00%laugh 
gion
dʒən100.00%religion 
h
h100.00%helicopter 
i
ɪ74.61%fish 
15.34%violin 
i4.64%broccoli 
ə3.88%penci
j0.76%onion 
ʌɪ0.76%idea 
ie
i100.00%believe 
igh
100.00%ligh
ir
ɜ55.77%shir
ə44.23%chair 
j
87.62%jeans 
d͡ʒ12.38%jaw 
k
k100.00%pink 
kn
n100.00%knife 
l
l98.00%lawyer 
ɫ1.39%beautiful 
əl0.60%cruel 
le
əl100.00%table 
ll
l100.00%balloon 
m
m100.00%man 
mm
m100.00%hammer 
n
n96.48%banan
ŋ3.52%anxious 
ng
ŋ100.00%finger 
nn
n100.00%bonnet 
o
ə30.58%computer 
ɒ26.97%frost 
əʊ16.92%note 
o6.88%potato 
ʌ5.85%monkey 
ɔ5.28%fourteen 
ɑ5.11%hospital 
u1.55%sho
ʊ0.86%woman 
oa
əʊ49.02%toaster 
ɔ31.37%blackboard 
19.61%soa
oe
ʌ100.00%doesn't 
oo
u64.12%broo
ʊ33.59%loo
ʌ2.29%floo
or
ɔ91.63%forty 
ɜ8.37%wor
ou
74.10%clou
u13.67%voluptuou
ʌ11.51%cousin 
ɑʊ0.72%found 
ough
ɔ69.23%brough
ʌf30.77%enough 
oul
ʊ100.00%coul
our
ɔɹ83.33%four 
əɹ16.67%colour 
ous
əs100.00%famous 
ow
əʊ56.84%pillow 
43.16%brow
p
p100.00%pupil 
ph
f100.00%saxophone 
pp
p100.00%pepper 
ps
s100.00%psychological 
qu
kw77.65%require 
k22.35%liquor 
r
ɹ69.46%liquor 
r24.03%stretcher 
ə3.31%furnitur
əɹ3.20%security 
rr
ɹ100.00%mirror 
s
s81.30%slap 
z17.28%desert 
ʃ0.74%sugar 
ʒ0.69%pleasure 
sh
ʃ100.00%dishwasher 
sion
ʒən72.00%decision 
ʃən28.00%pension 
ss
s98.17%dress 
ʃ1.83%issue 
ssion
ʃən100.00%mission 
t
t100.00%paint 
th
θ68.18%thumb 
ð31.82%mother 
tion
ʃən97.69%dictionary 
ʃn̩2.31%addition 
tt
t100.00%lettuce 
tu
100.00%furniture 
u
ʌ48.46%conductor 
ju19.51%uniform 
ə13.04%luxury 
u7.19%flute 
5.44%during 
ʊ4.93%butcher 
ɪ1.44%guitar 
ue
u100.00%blue 
ui
u100.00%juice 
ur
ɜ92.86%tur
ɜr7.14%blur 
v
v100.00%river 
w
w95.39%whale 
ʊ4.61%rainbow 
wh
ʍ84.62%wh
hw15.38%which 
wr
ɹ100.00%writing 
x
ks84.92%tax
ɡ11.90%exit 
3.17%luxury 
y
i69.47%thirty 
ɪ15.58%boy 
10.59%cry 
j4.36%lawyer 
z
z100.00%sneez
zz
z100.00%puzzle