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The Sounds of English

Below is a list of the common sounds of English and the letter groups used to represent these sounds. Letters and groups of letters may have different sounds, and this is shown along with their IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) and their frequency of occurrence.

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Spelling IPA Frequency Example
a
æ33.88%taxi 
ə28.99%geography 
20.57%potato 
ɑ5.03%bra 
ɛ3.47%airplane 
a2.75%ladder 
ɪ1.92%chocolate 
ɔ1.63%salt 
ɒ1.23%swallow 
ʌ0.54%appointment 
ai
100.00%paint 
al
100.00%social 
ar
ɑ62.22%har
ə32.96%dictionar
ɔ4.81%wardrobe 
au
ɔ97.92%laundry 
a2.08%laugh 
augh
ɔ77.78%daughter 
ɑf22.22%laughing 
aw
ɔ100.00%jaw 
b
b100.00%rob
bb
b100.00%cabbage 
c
k77.19%scarf 
s22.81%necklac
cc
k100.00%accountant 
ch
45.65%chimney 
k21.30%choir 
ʃ20.00%kitchen 
t͡ʃ13.04%peach 
ci
ʃ80.00%politician 
ʃi20.00%appreciate 
ck
k100.00%stocking 
d
d100.00%handle 
dd
d100.00%ladder 
don
dn̩100.00%abandon 
e
ɛ43.75%tension 
ɪ22.88%eleven 
ə18.90%scalpe
i8.37%ceiling 
e4.39%engineer 
ɪə1.70%beer 
ea
i66.67%screa
ɛ28.46%hea
ɪ2.44%dea
ɪə2.44%idea 
ear
ɜ32.50%early 
ɛə10.00%bear 
ɪə̯7.50%ear 
eau
ju100.00%beauty 
ed
d100.00%called 
ee
i100.00%shee
eigh
100.00%eighty 
er
ə39.34%paper 
əɹ31.97%silver 
ɜ16.72%deser
ɚ11.97%hunter 
eu
ju100.00%feu
ew
ju100.00%newspaper 
ey
i100.00%honey 
f
f100.00%friend 
ff
f100.00%coffee 
g
ɡ62.93%shrug 
27.65%cabbag
ʒ4.48%hedg
d͡ʒ4.19%charg
g0.75%grandmother 
gg
ɡ100.00%egg 
gh
f100.00%laugh 
gion
dʒən100.00%religion 
h
h100.00%hold 
i
ɪ74.61%psychological 
15.34%writing 
i4.64%magazine 
ə3.88%pupi
j0.76%onion 
ʌɪ0.76%require 
ie
i100.00%believe 
igh
100.00%ligh
ir
ɜ55.77%thirty 
ə44.23%hair 
j
87.62%jacket 
d͡ʒ12.38%jazz 
k
k100.00%look 
kn
n100.00%knife 
l
l98.00%bel
ɫ1.39%silver 
əl0.60%real 
le
əl100.00%table 
ll
l100.00%called 
m
m100.00%chimney 
mm
m100.00%drummer 
n
n96.48%musician 
ŋ3.52%monkey 
ng
ŋ100.00%lightning 
nn
n100.00%bonnet 
o
ə30.58%psychological 
ɒ26.97%chocolate 
əʊ16.92%home 
o6.88%groceries 
ʌ5.85%honey 
ɔ5.28%point 
ɑ5.11%photographer 
u1.55%sho
ʊ0.86%woman 
oa
əʊ49.02%boa
ɔ31.37%dashboard 
19.61%soa
oe
ʌ100.00%doesn't 
oo
u64.12%spoo
ʊ33.59%foo
ʌ2.29%floo
or
ɔ91.63%for
ɜ8.37%wor
ou
74.10%mountain 
u13.67%voluptuou
ʌ11.51%cousin 
ɑʊ0.72%found 
ough
ɔ69.23%brough
ʌf30.77%tough 
oul
ʊ100.00%coul
our
ɔɹ83.33%four 
əɹ16.67%favour 
ous
əs100.00%famous 
ow
əʊ56.84%pillow 
43.16%cow 
p
p100.00%purple 
ph
f100.00%photographer 
pp
p100.00%napp
ps
s100.00%psychological 
qu
kw77.65%question 
k22.35%liquor 
r
ɹ69.46%orange 
r24.03%reading 
ə3.31%requir
əɹ3.20%during 
rr
ɹ100.00%mirror 
s
s81.30%psychiatris
z17.28%crimson 
ʃ0.74%sugar 
ʒ0.69%usually 
sh
ʃ100.00%shake 
sion
ʒən72.00%television 
ʃən28.00%tension 
ss
s98.17%class 
ʃ1.83%issue 
ssion
ʃən100.00%commission 
t
t100.00%cast 
th
θ68.18%mouth 
ð31.82%weather 
tion
ʃən97.69%dictionary 
ʃn̩2.31%addition 
tt
t100.00%kettle 
tu
100.00%temperature 
u
ʌ48.46%thumb 
ju19.51%usually 
ə13.04%pleasure 
u7.19%prune 
5.44%during 
ʊ4.93%incongruous 
ɪ1.44%lettuce 
ue
u100.00%blue 
ui
u100.00%juice 
ur
ɜ92.86%nurse 
ɜr7.14%blur 
v
v100.00%voluptuous 
w
w95.39%wall 
ʊ4.61%crowbar 
wh
ʍ84.62%wh
hw15.38%which 
wr
ɹ100.00%writing 
x
ks84.92%sixteen 
ɡ11.90%exactly 
3.17%luxury 
y
i69.47%cherry 
ɪ15.58%boy 
10.59%psychiatrist 
j4.36%lawyer 
z
z100.00%zero 
zz
z100.00%puzzle