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The Sounds of English

Below is a list of the common sounds of English and the letter groups used to represent these sounds. Letters and groups of letters may have different sounds, and this is shown along with their IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) and their frequency of occurrence.

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Spelling IPA Frequency Example
a
æ33.88%bandage 
ə28.99%accountant 
20.57%table 
ɑ5.03%grandfather 
ɛ3.47%tomato 
a2.75%handkerchief 
ɪ1.92%bandage 
ɔ1.63%talk 
ɒ1.23%swallow 
ʌ0.54%wasn't 
ai
100.00%drai
al
100.00%social 
ar
ɑ62.22%artist 
ə32.96%sugar 
ɔ4.81%wardrobe 
au
ɔ97.92%laundry 
a2.08%laugh 
augh
ɔ77.78%daughter 
ɑf22.22%laughter 
aw
ɔ100.00%lawyer 
b
b100.00%book 
bb
b100.00%rabbit 
c
k77.19%cream 
s22.81%fenc
cc
k100.00%broccoli 
ch
45.65%beach 
k21.30%choir 
ʃ20.00%chef 
t͡ʃ13.04%church 
ci
ʃ80.00%musician 
ʃi20.00%appreciate 
ck
k100.00%black 
d
d100.00%would 
dd
d100.00%addition 
don
dn̩100.00%abandoned 
e
ɛ43.75%fence 
ɪ22.88%religion 
ə18.90%enemy 
i8.37%appreciate 
e4.39%engineer 
ɪə1.70%beer 
ea
i66.67%pea 
ɛ28.46%weather 
ɪ2.44%dea
ɪə2.44%idea 
ear
ɜ32.50%early 
ɛə10.00%bear 
ɪə̯7.50%ear 
eau
ju100.00%beautiful 
ed
d100.00%used 
ee
i100.00%coffee 
eigh
100.00%eighty 
er
ə39.34%singer 
əɹ31.97%father 
ɜ16.72%her
ɚ11.97%hunter 
eu
ju100.00%neutral 
ew
ju100.00%newspaper 
ey
i100.00%turkey 
f
f100.00%favour 
ff
f100.00%coffee 
g
ɡ62.93%sugar 
27.65%garag
ʒ4.48%judg
d͡ʒ4.19%charg
g0.75%grandmother 
gg
ɡ100.00%egg 
gh
f100.00%laugh 
gion
dʒən100.00%religion 
h
h100.00%helicopter 
i
ɪ74.61%sixty 
15.34%triangle 
i4.64%radi
ə3.88%pupi
j0.76%onion 
ʌɪ0.76%idea 
ie
i100.00%piece 
igh
100.00%lightning 
ir
ɜ55.77%gir
ə44.23%hair 
j
87.62%banj
d͡ʒ12.38%jazz 
k
k100.00%kitchen 
kn
n100.00%knife 
l
l98.00%ruler 
ɫ1.39%silver 
əl0.60%real 
le
əl100.00%file 
ll
l100.00%balloon 
m
m100.00%mouse 
mm
m100.00%hammer 
n
n96.48%eleven 
ŋ3.52%pin
ng
ŋ100.00%during 
nn
n100.00%tunnel 
o
ə30.58%colo
ɒ26.97%body 
əʊ16.92%note 
o6.88%piano 
ʌ5.85%honey 
ɔ5.28%floor 
ɑ5.11%photographer 
u1.55%cano
ʊ0.86%woman 
oa
əʊ49.02%coast 
ɔ31.37%dashboard 
19.61%soa
oe
ʌ100.00%doe
oo
u64.12%too
ʊ33.59%foo
ʌ2.29%floo
or
ɔ91.63%hor
ɜ8.37%wor
ou
74.10%mouse 
u13.67%incongruou
ʌ11.51%touch 
ɑʊ0.72%found 
ough
ɔ69.23%though
ʌf30.77%enough 
oul
ʊ100.00%coul
our
ɔɹ83.33%four 
əɹ16.67%colour 
ous
əs100.00%serious 
ow
əʊ56.84%pillow 
43.16%brow
p
p100.00%cup 
ph
f100.00%photographer 
pp
p100.00%apple 
ps
s100.00%psychiatrist 
qu
kw77.65%quite 
k22.35%liquor 
r
ɹ69.46%psychiatrist 
r24.03%br
ə3.31%flour 
əɹ3.20%temperatur
rr
ɹ100.00%carrot 
s
s81.30%taste 
z17.28%music 
ʃ0.74%sugar 
ʒ0.69%pleasure 
sh
ʃ100.00%push 
sion
ʒən72.00%television 
ʃən28.00%tension 
ss
s98.17%glass 
ʃ1.83%issue 
ssion
ʃən100.00%mission 
t
t100.00%stove 
th
θ68.18%thunder 
ð31.82%father 
tion
ʃən97.69%dictionary 
ʃn̩2.31%addition 
tt
t100.00%butter 
tu
100.00%furniture 
u
ʌ48.46%trumpet 
ju19.51%usually 
ə13.04%pleasure 
u7.19%flute 
5.44%during 
ʊ4.93%sugar 
ɪ1.44%guitar 
ue
u100.00%blue 
ui
u100.00%juice 
ur
ɜ92.86%church 
ɜr7.14%turning 
v
v100.00%microwav
w
w95.39%swan 
ʊ4.61%crowbar 
wh
ʍ84.62%when 
hw15.38%which 
wr
ɹ100.00%write 
x
ks84.92%sixty 
ɡ11.90%exactly 
3.17%luxury 
y
i69.47%luxury 
ɪ15.58%seventy 
10.59%butterfly 
j4.36%yellow 
z
z100.00%zero 
zz
z100.00%puzzle