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The Sounds of English

Below is a list of the common sounds of English and the letter groups used to represent these sounds. Letters and groups of letters may have different sounds, and this is shown along with their IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) and their frequency of occurrence.

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Spelling IPA Frequency Example
a
æ33.88%animal 
ə28.99%abandoned 
20.57%ba
ɑ5.03%dance 
ɛ3.47%carrot 
a2.75%handkerchief 
ɪ1.92%mountain 
ɔ1.63%walk 
ɒ1.23%dishwasher 
ʌ0.54%appointment 
ai
100.00%paint 
al
100.00%social 
ar
ɑ62.22%scar
ə32.96%librar
ɔ4.81%wardrobe 
au
ɔ97.92%laundry 
a2.08%laugh 
augh
ɔ77.78%daughter 
ɑf22.22%laughing 
aw
ɔ100.00%lawyer 
b
b100.00%blanket 
bb
b100.00%cabbage 
c
k77.19%cup 
s22.81%fac
cc
k100.00%broccoli 
ch
45.65%teacher 
k21.30%psychological 
ʃ20.00%kitchen 
t͡ʃ13.04%chicken 
ci
ʃ80.00%politician 
ʃi20.00%species 
ck
k100.00%back 
d
d100.00%medicine 
dd
d100.00%addition 
don
dn̩100.00%abandon 
e
ɛ43.75%elbow 
ɪ22.88%enough 
ə18.90%eleve
i8.37%regional 
e4.39%helicopter 
ɪə1.70%beer 
ea
i66.67%cerea
ɛ28.46%weather 
ɪ2.44%dea
ɪə2.44%idea 
ear
ɜ32.50%early 
ɛə10.00%bear 
ɪə̯7.50%ear 
eau
ju100.00%beauty 
ed
d100.00%abandoned 
ee
i100.00%sixtee
eigh
100.00%eighteen 
er
ə39.34%trainer 
əɹ31.97%daughter 
ɜ16.72%perfume 
ɚ11.97%teacher 
eu
ju100.00%neutral 
ew
ju100.00%newspaper 
ey
i100.00%valley 
f
f100.00%ferry 
ff
f100.00%coffee 
g
ɡ62.93%girl 
27.65%engineer 
ʒ4.48%judg
d͡ʒ4.19%energ
g0.75%grandmother 
gg
ɡ100.00%egg 
gh
f100.00%laugh 
gion
dʒən100.00%religion 
h
h100.00%hair 
i
ɪ74.61%singer 
15.34%island 
i4.64%pianist 
ə3.88%anxious 
j0.76%onion 
ʌɪ0.76%idea 
ie
i100.00%believe 
igh
100.00%thigh 
ir
ɜ55.77%shir
ə44.23%chair 
j
87.62%jeans 
d͡ʒ12.38%jazz 
k
k100.00%pink 
kn
n100.00%knife 
l
l98.00%level 
ɫ1.39%beautiful 
əl0.60%cruel 
le
əl100.00%puzzle 
ll
l100.00%balloon 
m
m100.00%medicine 
mm
m100.00%drummer 
n
n96.48%hunter 
ŋ3.52%blanket 
ng
ŋ100.00%turning 
nn
n100.00%bonnet 
o
ə30.58%lemo
ɒ26.97%bonnet 
əʊ16.92%soldier 
o6.88%rainbo
ʌ5.85%grandmother 
ɔ5.28%bo
ɑ5.11%hospital 
u1.55%cano
ʊ0.86%woman 
oa
əʊ49.02%throa
ɔ31.37%dashboard 
19.61%soa
oe
ʌ100.00%doesn't 
oo
u64.12%schoo
ʊ33.59%boo
ʌ2.29%floo
or
ɔ91.63%corner 
ɜ8.37%wor
ou
74.10%cloudy 
u13.67%sou
ʌ11.51%cousin 
ɑʊ0.72%found 
ough
ɔ69.23%brough
ʌf30.77%enough 
oul
ʊ100.00%coul
our
ɔɹ83.33%four 
əɹ16.67%colour 
ous
əs100.00%famous 
ow
əʊ56.84%snow 
43.16%cow 
p
p100.00%soup 
ph
f100.00%photographer 
pp
p100.00%pepper 
ps
s100.00%psychiatrist 
qu
kw77.65%quite 
k22.35%liquor 
r
ɹ69.46%string 
r24.03%stretcher 
ə3.31%furnitur
əɹ3.20%temperatur
rr
ɹ100.00%carrot 
s
s81.30%six 
z17.28%musician 
ʃ0.74%sugar 
ʒ0.69%pleasure 
sh
ʃ100.00%push 
sion
ʒən72.00%television 
ʃən28.00%tension 
ss
s98.17%dress 
ʃ1.83%pressure 
ssion
ʃən100.00%mission 
t
t100.00%truck 
th
θ68.18%thigh 
ð31.82%grandfather 
tion
ʃən97.69%dictionary 
ʃn̩2.31%addition 
tt
t100.00%lettuce 
tu
100.00%furniture 
u
ʌ48.46%hunter 
ju19.51%uniform 
ə13.04%luxury 
u7.19%flute 
5.44%security 
ʊ4.93%sugar 
ɪ1.44%biscuit 
ue
u100.00%blue 
ui
u100.00%frui
ur
ɜ92.86%furniture 
ɜr7.14%turning 
v
v100.00%glov
w
w95.39%ward 
ʊ4.61%crowbar 
wh
ʍ84.62%wh
hw15.38%which 
wr
ɹ100.00%writing 
x
ks84.92%sixty 
ɡ11.90%exit 
3.17%anxious 
y
i69.47%beauty 
ɪ15.58%boy 
10.59%why 
j4.36%yellow 
z
z100.00%magazine 
zz
z100.00%puzzle