The Sounds of English

Below is a list of the common sounds of English and the letter groups used to represent these sounds. Letters and groups of letters may have different sounds, and this is shown along with their IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) and their frequency of occurrence.

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Spelling IPA Frequency Example
a
æ33.88%maths 
ə28.99%pasta 
20.57%ba
ɑ5.03%father 
ɛ3.47%tomato 
a2.75%cast 
ɪ1.92%orange 
ɔ1.63%chalk 
ɒ1.23%swallow 
ʌ0.54%appointment 
ai
100.00%nai
al
100.00%social 
ar
ɑ62.22%crowbar 
ə32.96%dictionar
ɔ4.81%wardrobe 
au
ɔ97.92%sauce 
a2.08%laugh 
augh
ɔ77.78%daughter 
ɑf22.22%laughing 
aw
ɔ100.00%jaw 
b
b100.00%boat 
bb
b100.00%cabbage 
c
k77.19%colour 
s22.81%bicycle 
cc
k100.00%accountant 
ch
45.65%chocolate 
k21.30%architect 
ʃ20.00%kitchen 
t͡ʃ13.04%church 
ci
ʃ80.00%social 
ʃi20.00%appreciate 
ck
k100.00%chicken 
d
d100.00%drug 
dd
d100.00%addition 
don
dn̩100.00%abandoned 
e
ɛ43.75%twelve 
ɪ22.88%detergent 
ə18.90%came
i8.37%ceiling 
e4.39%engineer 
ɪə1.70%beer 
ea
i66.67%beach 
ɛ28.46%pleasure 
ɪ2.44%dea
ɪə2.44%idea 
ear
ɜ32.50%early 
ɛə10.00%bear 
ɪə̯7.50%ear 
eau
ju100.00%beauty 
ed
d100.00%abandoned 
ee
i100.00%sixtee
eigh
100.00%eighteen 
er
ə39.34%toaster 
əɹ31.97%spider 
ɜ16.72%deser
ɚ11.97%hunter 
eu
ju100.00%feu
ew
ju100.00%newspaper 
ey
i100.00%keyboard 
f
f100.00%flute 
ff
f100.00%coffee 
g
ɡ62.93%guitar 
27.65%engineer 
ʒ4.48%hedg
d͡ʒ4.19%energ
g0.75%grandmother 
gg
ɡ100.00%egg 
gh
f100.00%laugh 
gion
dʒən100.00%regional 
h
h100.00%honey 
i
ɪ74.61%crimson 
15.34%quite 
i4.64%taxi 
ə3.88%cousi
j0.76%onion 
ʌɪ0.76%idea 
ie
i100.00%piece 
igh
100.00%thigh 
ir
ɜ55.77%gir
ə44.23%hair 
j
87.62%pajamas 
d͡ʒ12.38%juice 
k
k100.00%kitchen 
kn
n100.00%knife 
l
l98.00%sal
ɫ1.39%beautiful 
əl0.60%cruel 
le
əl100.00%bicycle 
ll
l100.00%bell 
m
m100.00%mustard 
mm
m100.00%hammer 
n
n96.48%skin 
ŋ3.52%sin
ng
ŋ100.00%lung 
nn
n100.00%tunnel 
o
ə30.58%computer 
ɒ26.97%coffee 
əʊ16.92%pole 
o6.88%potato 
ʌ5.85%glove 
ɔ5.28%point 
ɑ5.11%hospital 
u1.55%sho
ʊ0.86%woman 
oa
əʊ49.02%toaster 
ɔ31.37%keyboard 
19.61%soa
oe
ʌ100.00%doe
oo
u64.12%balloo
ʊ33.59%boo
ʌ2.29%floo
or
ɔ91.63%abnormal 
ɜ8.37%wor
ou
74.10%mouth 
u13.67%voluptuou
ʌ11.51%cousin 
ɑʊ0.72%found 
ough
ɔ69.23%though
ʌf30.77%enough 
oul
ʊ100.00%woul
our
ɔɹ83.33%four 
əɹ16.67%colour 
ous
əs100.00%serious 
ow
əʊ56.84%window 
43.16%shower 
p
p100.00%pencil 
ph
f100.00%geograph
pp
p100.00%appointment 
ps
s100.00%psychological 
qu
kw77.65%quite 
k22.35%liquor 
r
ɹ69.46%train 
r24.03%geography 
ə3.31%requir
əɹ3.20%temperatur
rr
ɹ100.00%carrot 
s
s81.30%sailor 
z17.28%pajamas 
ʃ0.74%sugar 
ʒ0.69%pleasure 
sh
ʃ100.00%shout 
sion
ʒən72.00%decision 
ʃən28.00%tension 
ss
s98.17%dress 
ʃ1.83%issue 
ssion
ʃən100.00%commission 
t
t100.00%stretcher 
th
θ68.18%thumb 
ð31.82%brother 
tion
ʃən97.69%dictionary 
ʃn̩2.31%addition 
tt
t100.00%butterfly 
tu
100.00%voluptuous 
u
ʌ48.46%butterfly 
ju19.51%used 
ə13.04%pressure 
u7.19%prune 
5.44%security 
ʊ4.93%butcher 
ɪ1.44%biscuit 
ue
u100.00%blue 
ui
u100.00%juice 
ur
ɜ92.86%church 
ɜr7.14%turning 
v
v100.00%shovel 
w
w95.39%word 
ʊ4.61%rainbow 
wh
ʍ84.62%wh
hw15.38%which 
wr
ɹ100.00%writing 
x
ks84.92%saxophone 
ɡ11.90%exactly 
3.17%luxury 
y
i69.47%beauty 
ɪ15.58%seventy 
10.59%psychiatrist 
j4.36%yellow 
z
z100.00%zero 
zz
z100.00%puzzle