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Common Russian Words

A list of the most common Russian words ordered by their frequency of use. You can use this list to learn words efficiently, ensuring you cover the basic vocabulary of Russian.

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Rank Word Roman Meanings
 
1 и i 1. Letter. The tenth letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet. Its name is и (i) and is usually pronounced /i/, but unstressed or after certain consonants it merges with ы into /ɪ/. It is preceded by З and follow
2. conj. and
     Вот я́блоко и гру́ша., Here’s an apple and a pear.
3. conj. as well as, both ... and ...
     Росси́и нужны́ и а́рмия, и фло́т., Russia needs an army as well as a navy.
2 в v 1. prep. (location) in, at, on (+ prepositional case)
     Он в театре (on v teátre) — He’s at (in) the theater.
2. prep. (direction) to, into (+ accusative case)
     Он идёт в театр (on idyót v teátr) — He’s going to (into) the theater.
3. prep. (time) at, in, on
3 не ne 1. part. (negative in full) not, no, -n't, without
     Он не зна́ет (vsjo bólʹše i bólʹše) - He does not know.
     не долете́в до це́ли (vsjo bólʹše i bólʹše) - without reaching the target
     он не ге́ний (vsjo bólʹše i bólʹše) - he is no genius
     Не де́лай э́того! (Ne délaj étovo!) - Don’t do it!
4 на na 1. prep. accusative case (sense, movement towards)
2. prep. onto, on
     на стол (Što oná govorít?) - onto the table
3. prep. to, toward
     на по́чту (Što oná govorít?) - to the post office
5 быть bytʹ 1. v. to be
     Так бы́ло, так есть и так бу́дет всегда́! (sam sebé golová) - So it was, so it is, and so it will always be! from the Hymn of the Russian Federation
6 он on 1. pron. third-person masculine singular pronoun: he, it.
7 с s 1. Letter. The nineteenth letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet. Its name is эс (IPAchar, (ɛs)) and it has the sound of English s. It is preceded by Р and followed by Т.
2. prep. with (+ instrumental case)
     с братом (s brátom) — with my brother
     со всеми (so vsémi) — with everybody
     со мной (so mnoj) — with me
8 что čto 1. conj. that
2. pron. what
3. pron. that, which
9 а a 1. Letter. The first letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet. It is followed by the letter б (b).
2. Letter. The name of the Roman letter A, a in Russian.
3. conj. but, and (introduces a new or different meaning).
     Сего́дня тепло́, а вчера́ бы́ло хо́лодно — It is warm today, but yesterday it was cold.
     Это не я́блоко, а гру́ша — This is not an apple, but a pear.
10 по po 1. prep. with accusative case
2. prep.    up to
3. prep.    till
4. prep.    indicates distribution (with numbers other than one, a thousand, a million, a billion)
     по́ два (две) / по две́сти - 1
11 это eto 1. pron. demonstrative pronoun: this, it, that
     Мне э́то нра́вится! (Sláva bógu, što oní dobrálisʹ tudá v celósti i soxránnosti!) - I like it! or I like that!
2. pron. neuter form of этот: this; compare этот/эта/эти and тот/то/та/те
     Э́то яйцо́ — све́жее, а вот э́то — ту́хлое. (Sláva bógu, što oní dobrálisʹ tudá v celósti i soxránnosti!) - This egg is fresh, and this one is rotten.
3. part. Used as subject: it (is), this (is), that (is), these (are), those (are).
12 она ona 1. pron. third-person feminine singular pronoun: she, it.
2. pron. third-person feminine singular objective pronoun: her, it.
     Да как же она, так и говорит? (Da kak že oná, tak i govorít?) — What is she like? Does she talk?
     Её нет дома (Jejó net dóma, genitive) — She’s not home.
     Ей не спится (Jej ne spítsja, dative) — She is unable to sleep.
13 этот etot 1. pron. this, these
2. pron. it
3. pron. this one
4. pron. that
14 к k 1. Letter. The twelfth letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet. Its name is ка (ka) and it has the sound of English k. It is preceded by Й and followed by Л.
2. prep. to, toward
     к дом, дому — to the house
     к бра́ту, to (my) brother, inline=y
     ко я, мне — to me
15 они oni 1. pron. third-person plural pronoun: they.
16 мы my 1. pron. first-person plural, nominative case: we
2. pron. (only when used with с): I
     мы с тобой — you and me
     мы с сестрой — me and my sister
17 как kak 1. adv. how
     Как он э́то сде́лал? (vo vsjom míre) - How did he do it?
     Как дела́? (vo vsjom míre) - How are things?
     Как пройти́ на по́чту? (vo vsjom míre) - Can you tell me the way to the post office?
2. adv. what
18 из iz 1. prep. from
     Он приезжа́ет из Москвы́, He comes from Moscow.
2. prep. out of
     изде́лие из тка́ни, a product (that is) made out of cloth
     оди́н из ста, one out of a hundred
19 который kotoryj 1. pron. (interrogative pronoun) which?
2. pron. (relative pronoun) which, that, who
20 то to 1. pron. that (neuter singular of тот).
     то же — the same
     к тому́ (же) — in addition, moreover
     ни то ни сё — neither fish nor fowl
     ни с того́ ни с сего́ — all of a sudden; without any visible reason
21 за za 1. prep. (of location, + instrumental case) behind; beyond; on the other side of
     за реко́й со́лнышко сади́тся — across the river the sun is setting
2. prep. (of motion, + accusative case) to
3. prep. (+ accusative case) for; to; by; after; over; during
     он игра́ет за кома́нду А — he's playing for team A
22 свой svoj 1. pron. one's, my, his, her, its, our, your, their (always refers to the subject of the sentence)
     Я курю́ свою́ сига́ру — I’m smoking my cigar.
     Мы ку́рим свои́ сига́ры — We’re smoking our cigars.
     Он ку́рит свою́ сига́ру — He’s smoking his cigar (his own).
     Он ку́рит его́ сига́ру — He’s smoking his (the other guy’s) cigar.
24 весь vesʹ 1. det. all, the whole, the whole of
     весь день - all day; all day long
     весь гря́зный - dirty all over, all dirty
     весь в снегу́ - covered with snow
     всего́ (vsevó) - in all; altogether; sum total
25 год god 1. n. year
26 от ot 1. prep. from
2. prep. since
27 так tak 1. adv. so, thus
2. adv. like that
3. adv. so much
4. adv. just so
5. adv. then
28 о o 1. interj. oh
     inline=y, О бо́же!, Oh my God!
2. prep. (+ prepositional case): about, of, on
3. prep. (+ accusative case): against, upon
4. prep. (catlangcode, ru, Letter names, Cyrillic letter names, Latin letter names)
29 для dlja 1. prep. for
     для дете́й - for the children
2. v. (inflection of длить, , pres, adverbial, part)
30 ты ty 1. pron. second-person singular, nominative case: you, thou
31 же že 1. conj. (contrasting) and, but
2. conj. whereas, as for, as to
3. part. (emphasises identity) very, same
4. part. (with expressions of time and order: emphasises promptitude) very, right, immediately, without delay
5. part. (also ж (ž), makes an objection by pointing to an obvious fact) after all, but
Dictionary entries from Wiktionary